E-ISSN 2149-2018 editor@ejmamr.online


Applied Medical Research. 2019; 6(1):(66-107)


Influence of vitamin D status on atherogenic profile of apparently healthy young adults

Oyebola Oluwagbemiga Sonuga, Ololade Oluwatobi Eluyera, Ayobola Abimbola Sonuga

Abstract
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common group of noncommunicable diseases and responsible for major morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low serum concentrations of 25(OH) vitamin D (vitamin D status) are associated with CVD risk factors and might predict the occurrence of cardiovascular events through its influence on the progression of atherogenesis. Aim: This study aimed to determine the association between vitamin D status and some markers of atherogenesis in apparently healthy youths. Methods: 150 young adults (students) aged 18–25 years were recruited from tertiary educational institutions in Ibadan, Nigeria, in 2018, and grouped into two based on their vitamin D status; Group A [25(OH) vitamin D ≥30 ng/ml, i.e., sufficient] and Group B [25(OH) vitamin D < 30 ng/ml, i.e., insufficient/deficient]. Anthropometric data, plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C); and serum insulin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, and lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] were determined by standard methods and compared between the two groups. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0. Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation were used to compare and assess the relationship between normally distributed variables, while the Mann–Whitney U test and Spearman rank correlation were used for non-Gaussian variables. Results showed that there was no significant statistical difference in the compared variables between the two groups, except for HDL-C which was significantly lower in the vitamin D deficient group compared to vitamin D sufficient group. The vitamin D sufficient participants were also taller than the deficient/insufficient group. There was a weak positive correlation between vitamin D and HDL-C; and a weak negative correlation between vitamin D and hs-CRP in the vitamin D sufficient group. Conclusion: This present study supports evidence from previously published works that reduced vitamin D status could increase both inflammation and dyslipidemia, which are both well-known risk factors for incident cardiovascular disease. It also supports existing evidence suggesting that adequate vitamin D status could reduce the risks of overt adult cardiovascular disease
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