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Applied Medical Research ISSN: 2149 - 2018
Applied Medical Research. 2021; 8(2):(121-127)


Abdominal Tuberculosis, Cancer and Granulomatous Disease: A Clinical Review

Lucas F, Gigante J nad Silva S

Abstract
Background: Tuberculosis is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Specifically, abdominal tuberculosis represents the 6th most frequent form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Human infection with ycobacteria is a potent trigger of granuloma formation. Tuberculoid granulomas are also typically highly organized structures that could be associated with cancer. Objectives: The aim of this review was to highlight the tuberculosis epidemiology and the difference between developed and undeveloped countries; to describe theefectsofatimelyidentificationofgranulomatousdiseasethatmayaltertheclinicalcourseandrespectiveprognosisofthepatientsandstand outperitoneal or/ and abdominal tuberculosis as a rare entity seen in the literature. Methods: The inclusion criteria were any peer-reviewed observational or interventional human studies or case reports describing granulomas and abdominal tuberculosis, from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019. We searched PubMed, using combined keywords for tuberculosis (TB) and peritoneal tuberculosis in the search queries. To stipulate, we used ("tuberculosis" OR "abdominal tuberculosis" OR "peritoneal tuberculosis") and ("generalized lymphadenopathy" OR "peritoneal disease" OR "cancer"). We also searched World Health Organization about the tuberculosis data and respective guidelines. Discussion and Conclusions: This review highlights the importance of the patient’s epidemiology. Comparing to Portugal, the TB incidence in developing countries was higher. It also highlights the great mimicker that simulates many diseases, and its peritoneal variant can clinically behave like a different abdominal pathology, and the risk of misdiagnosis in patients with generalized lymphadenopathy, peritoneal disease, and cancer. TB and cancer share many similarities in symptoms and radiology and laboratory results. True diagnosis with and correct follow-up can decrease patient morbidity and deaths. Abdominal tuberculosis is not a common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, however, should be considered in developing countries. There are also a lot of diagnostic procedures for TB in the literature, but none of them is completely specific or sensitive. It is very important to be multidisciplinary with professional inputs from all related fields to achieve the best outcomes of diagnosis and treatment for the patients.