Abdominal Tuberculosis, Cancer and Granulomatous Disease: A Clinical Review
Lucas F, Gigante J nad Silva S
Applied Medical Research. 2021;
Background: Tuberculosis is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Specifically, abdominal tuberculosis represents the 6th most frequent form of extra-pulmonary
tuberculosis. Human infection with ycobacteria is a potent trigger of granuloma formation. Tuberculoid
granulomas are also typically highly organized structures that could be associated with cancer.
Objectives: The aim of this review was to highlight the tuberculosis epidemiology and the difference between
developed and undeveloped countries; to describe theefectsofatimelyidentificationofgranulomatousdiseasethatmayaltertheclinicalcourseandrespectiveprognosisofthepatientsandstand
and abdominal tuberculosis as a rare entity seen in the literature.
Methods: The inclusion criteria were any peer-reviewed observational or interventional human studies
or case reports describing granulomas and abdominal tuberculosis, from 1 January 2018 to 31 December
2019. We searched PubMed, using combined keywords for tuberculosis (TB) and peritoneal tuberculosis
in the search queries. To stipulate, we used ("tuberculosis" OR "abdominal tuberculosis" OR "peritoneal
tuberculosis") and ("generalized lymphadenopathy"
OR "peritoneal disease" OR "cancer"). We also searched World Health Organization about the tuberculosis
data and respective guidelines.
Discussion and Conclusions: This review highlights the importance of the patient’s epidemiology. Comparing
to Portugal, the TB incidence in developing countries was higher. It also highlights the great mimicker
that simulates many diseases, and its peritoneal variant can clinically behave like a different abdominal
pathology, and the risk of misdiagnosis in patients with generalized lymphadenopathy, peritoneal disease,
and cancer. TB and cancer share many similarities in symptoms and radiology and laboratory results. True
diagnosis with and correct follow-up can decrease patient morbidity and deaths. Abdominal tuberculosis
is not a common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, however, should be considered in developing countries.
There are also a lot of diagnostic procedures for TB in the literature, but none of them is completely
specific or sensitive. It is very important to be multidisciplinary with professional inputs from all related
fields to achieve the best outcomes of diagnosis and treatment for the patients.